In a recent controversial article on A List Apart, Joe
To Hell with WCAG
2. On the surface, it seems like Joe made a strong case
against the WCAG 2.0 draft in an attempt to rally support for his movement
against the WCAG Working Group. Although he did raise many issues, in
several cases he failed explain exactly what the problem is.
I’m fully aware of the fact that not everyone who reads Joe’s article will
wade through several hundred pages from the 3 WCAG specifications, and who could
blame you? I read them, but the specs are certainly long, tedious and, in many
cases, extremely difficult to comprehend.
Exactly what a “page” is, let alone a “site,” will be a matter of dispute.
I somewhat agree with this. In an attempt to be technologically independent,
common terms like “page” and “site” have been replaced with much more obscure
technical terms like “web
unit” and “authored
Some of these terms aren’t even clearly defined or easily distinguishable from
For instance, consider “authored unit” and “web unit”: two terms that have
different definitions, but I still can’t quite figure out what exactly distinguishes
a “set of material created as a single body by an author” from “a collection
of information, consisting of one or more resources, intended to be rendered
A future website that complies with WCAG 2 won’t need valid HTML—at all,
ever. (More on that later.) You will, however, have to check
the DOM outputs of your site in multiple browsers and prove they’re identical.
There are two issues here: whether or not validity should be required by WCAG
2.0 and the insanity of that particular technique. I’m sure everyone agrees
that comparing the DOMs is an unrealistic expectation; and besides, the technique
is non-normative and so it can be safely ignored.
In the current draft of the guidelines, success
criterion 4.1.1 states:
Web units or authored components can be parsed unambiguously, and the relationships
in the resulting data structure are also unambiguous.
How to Meet Success Criterion 4.1.1
clarifies the meaning of that a little, though it still
uses rather technical lingo. It basically means that documents can be parsed
properly without depending upon error recovery techniques, especially where
the results are inconsistent between browsers. Strictly speaking, the wording
of that success criterion doesn’t explicitly require documents to be valid;
however, one of the techniques described to meet it is in fact Validating
Personally, I’m not convinced validity should be strictly required by WCAG
2.0, I believe it should remain as just a technique. The success criteria should
instead outline the purpose of validation. In other words, if you were asked:
why validate? What would your answer be and how does it relate to accessibility?
As it currently stands, the working group seems to recognise that the purpose
of validation is to help ensure that documents can be parsed correctly and interoperably
between user agents. It’s important to realise that validation is just a technique,
not a goal in itself. It is indeed a very good technique and one that
can be used to help meet the success criterion; but it is technique none-the-less.
I’m not saying validation isn’t important. I do believe it is very important
and I personally insist upon it for any site I develop, but it needs to be put
into the proper context. Although I wouldn’t object to its inclusion in the
guidelines, I don’t believe it needs to be enforced as a requirement on its
own. If validation is to succeed in web development, it should instead succeed
as part of quality assurance and best practice guidelines.
You can still use tables for layout. (And not just a table—tables for
It is unfortunate the wording of these guidelines explicitly allows the use
of tables for layout and does very little to discourage their use. While I
believe it should be recognised that table layouts can be made relatively accessible
to assistive technology, their use should still be considered a failure.
Your page, or any part of it, may blink
for up to three seconds. Parts
of it may not, however, “flash.”
I don’t particularly like blinking or flashing content at all, but I’m not
exactly sure of the problem here. It seems to me that the guideline recognises
that prolonged blinking/flashing is an accessibility issue and addresses it
by limiting the time frame.
I’m no expert on the issue, nor am I aware of the use cases (beyond annoying
advertisements) for allowing any blinking at all, but 3 seconds seems like a
reasonable compromise to me. Is 3 seconds enough time to trigger an epileptic
seizure or any other specific problems? Or is it merely an objection based
on a personal dislike of blinking, rather than solid facts?
You’ll be able to define entire technologies as a “baseline,”
meaning anyone without that technology has little, if any, recourse to complain
that your site is inaccessible to them.
I don’t fully agree with this issue and while I do see the conceptual problem
with the baseline, I don’t believe it is as bad as some people make it out to
There is a major difference between the statements: “This site is accessible”
and “This site is accessible to users, whose UAs meet the baseline requirements”.
While the latter will theoretically apply to any document conforming to WCAG
2.0, the former is a much broader statement that effectively means “This site
is accessible [to everyone]”.
If your baseline is set too high, users will have “recourse to complain that
your site is inaccessible to them”. The problem is that there is little guidance
on specifying a realistic, accessible baseline and that means the concerns
about it being set too high by organisations are indeed valid. For example,
will be effectively denied access to the site because their UA doesn’t meet
On the other hand, it’s an unrealistic expectation that plain old HTML will
be able to meet every possible use case and, as Joe will you tell you himself,
other technologies can be made just as accessible (e.g. Accessibile
You’ll be able to define entire directories of your site as off-limits to
accessibility (including, in WCAG 2’s own example, all
your freestanding videos).
I don’t see how this is a serious problem. The ability to scope a conformance
statement to specific sections of the site has some very good use cases. Although
failing to meet conformance for one section simply because the author doesn’t
want to do so isn’t a very good excuse, the ability to scope a conformance claim
is better than lying by saying the whole site is accessible.
Not that anybody ever made them accessible, but if you post videos online,
you no longer have to provide audio descriptions for the blind at the
lowest “conformance” level. And only prerecorded videos require captions
at that level.
I’m not sure how either of these are serious issues. Those with the knowledge
and tools available to provide audio descriptions of video can still do so,
but requiring audio descriptions at the lowest level is an unreasonable expectation
for most authors who are unlikely to have the technical skills, let alone
the tools, to do so.
Such authors can still provide a full text alternative
which is much easier to produce. However, Joe claimed that the full text
alternative is a “discreditied holdover from WCAG 1”, yet failed to provide
or link to any evidence to support that claim. His explanation stating
that parts of it are not needed by the blind, and other parts by the deaf
doesn’t seem to have a point – it certainly does nothing to discredit the
As for requiring captions for pre-recorded videos only, I don’t understand
why this is a problem at all. Would anyone seriously expect the average
person with a live web cam to be able to provide captions in real time?
That would require some serious effort to do, which the average author couldn’t
possible do anyway. Of course it may be realistic for something like a television
studio broadcasting their news online to provide captions, just as they do
for TV, in which case, they can claim conformance to a higher level of accessibility.
Your podcasts may have to be remixed so that dialogue is 20
decibels louder than lengthy background noise.
That is only if authors wish to claim conformance to level 3, although I don’t
understand what the problem is here. Is this an issue because the technique
presents no accessibility benefits? Is it because it’s an unrealistic
expectation for authors to achieve? Or is there some other reason that failed
to be explained.
You can’t use offscreen positioning to add labels (e.g., to forms) that
only some people, like users of assistive technology, can perceive. Everybody has
to see them.
I interpret the specification differently from Joe, with regards
to this issue. How to Meet Success Criterion 1.3.1 states:
The intent of this success criterion is to ensure that information and relationships
that are implied by visual or auditory formatting are preserved when the presentation
format changes. […] The purpose of this success criterion is to ensure that
when such relationships are perceivable to one set of users, those relationships
can be made to be perceivable to all.
Not everybody has to see the text labels; there is nothing there that says
they can’t be hidden off screen. What I believe it is saying is that the
same meaning needs to be conveyed to all users, regardless of the presentation.
e.g. For a visual user, the meaning may be conveyed through the visual layout,
colours, icons, etc, but for an aural user, for example, the same meaning
may be conveyed by speaking the text label.
CSS layouts, particularly those with absolutely-positioned elements that
are removed from the document flow, may simply be prohibited at
the highest level. In fact, source order must match presentation order even
at the lowest level.
Again, I interpret the spec differently. Nothing in the spec
says the presentation order much match the source order, it simply states
that the same meaning must be conveyed to the user regardless of the presentation.
It’s ok to use absolute positioning (or any other layout method) to alter
the presentational ordering, as long as the meaning of the content is not altered.
Also at the highest level, you have to provide
a way to find all of the following:
- Definitions of idioms and “jargon”
- Expansion of acronyms
- Pronunciations of some words
Again, I don’t see how this is a problem at all. It is only required for
level 3 conformance and is there any reason why providing such things would
be a bad idea? Providing definitions may be as simple as linking to a glossary
or dictionary entry and expansions for acronyms is as simple as using the
Providing pronunciations of some words, where necessary, is not only useful
for disabled, it’s useful for anyone that reads a difficult word they’ve
never heard before and may not have an obvious pronunciation.
Joe also announced the launch of the WCAG
Samurai: an effort to publish corrections
for and extensions to the existing WCAG 1.0 recommendation. In principle, it’s
a very good idea for the community to begin addressing accessibility issues
and the serious problems with WCAG 2.0 themselves, but my main concern with
the WCAG Samurai is this:
… another thing we’re not going to do is run a totally open process. It’s
a viable model for standards development, one I have championed in another context,
but in web accessibility it is proven not to work.
WCAG Samurai will toil in obscurity for the foreseeable future. Membership
rolls will not be published, and membership is by invitation only.
Working on this behind closed doors seems like a huge mistake to me. In fact,
it seems down right hypocritical of Joe to discredit the WCAG 2.0 working group
process on the grounds that it and, indeed, the results themselves are inaccessible
to a wide audience; only to go ahead and make the WCAG Samurai process inaccessible
to, and hidden away from, all but the few invited elite.
I’m not too concerned that participation is strictly limited to the select
few, but I think there really needs to be a way for the community to at least
watch from the sidelines and see everything that goes on, even if they can’t
contribute directly. It has been stated that the WCAG Samurai website will
soon have a news feed for updates, so there is a chance that’s exactly what
I will admit, however, it may be too early to pass judgement on the WCAG Samurai
right now, and it’s only fair that we let them give it a shot. After all, the
members are unlikely to be weighed down by absurd corporate interests, but rather
have the best interests of both web developers and end users in mind. We’ll
just have to wait and see.